Kabwe 1 also called the Broken Hill skull , Rhodesian Man is a Middle Paleolithic fossil assigned by Arthur Smith Woodward in as the type specimen for Homo rhodesiensis , now mostly considered a synonym of Homo heidelbergensis. The cranium was discovered in the lead and zinc mine of Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia now Kabwe , Zambia on 17 June  by Tom Zwiglaar, a Swiss miner , and an African miner whose name was not recorded. The skull was dubbed “Rhodesian Man” at the time of the find, but is now commonly referred to as the Broken Hill skull or the Kabwe cranium. The skull is kept in the Natural History Museum, London. The destruction of the paleoanthropological site has made stratigraphic dating impossible. Prior to the s, the skull was believed to be only , years old. It was described as having a broad face similar to that of Homo neanderthalensis i.
Dating Kabwe 1, the Broken Hill skull from Zambia
Lead poisoning can have devastating health consequences, especially for children, with childhood lead exposure estimated to contribute to , new cases globally of children with intellectual disabilities every year. Lead exposure is entirely preventable, yet is estimated to account for 0. Kabwe, the second largest city in Zambia with a population of approximately ,, is located in Zambia’s Copperbelt. During —, lead mining and smelting operations contaminated the soil in residential areas, but no extensive environmental health assessment was completed 2.
In , the World Bank funded the Copperbelt Environmental Project to assist the Government of Zambia in addressing environmental health problems related to the mining sector.
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Close examination of three early hominid crania from Africa yields taphonomic information long after they were excavated, and can contribute information relevant to their dating and taxonomic status. The condition of the bone and breaks and markings are reviewed in the Florisbad, Saldanha and Broken Hill Kabwe crania, indicating animal biting while the bone was still fresh in the first and last of these specimens.
However, the damage to the base of the Kabwe cranium indicates that there may also have been breakage by hominids, including scorings near the margin of the squamous suture. No tooth marks are observed on the Saldanha cranium, but a depressed fracture and other lesions indicate hominid damage to fresh bone. Postmortem weathering indicates cranial thickness even greater than the original measurements, which implies a more primitive evolutionary status for Saldanha than for Kabwe.
Kabwe cranium , also called Broken Hill cranium , fossilized skull of an extinct human species genus Homo found near the town of Kabwe , Zambia formerly Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia , in It was the first discovered remains of premodern Homo in Africa and until the early s was considered to be 30, to 40, years old—only one-tenth its true age. The nearly complete cranium was found in association with a jaw fragment, a sacrum , and portions of pelvis and limb bones.
The fossils, popularly known as Rhodesian man and at first given the taxonomic name H. Despite past disagreement about the classification of these specimens, they are now usually attributed to the archaic human species H. The Kabwe skull has archaic features, being massive and flattened in profile with browridges that are very large and continuous across the nasal bridge.
There are a large ridge across the rear of the skull and a very large palate. Even so, the cranial capacity of 1, cc 78 cubic inches is nearly as large as that of modern humans. The limb bones are robust but otherwise indistinguishable from those of modern humans. The pelvis is also modern, though it has a buttress on the blade similar to those seen on H. The age of the remains is difficult to establish, but animal fossils also found at the site imply a date of , to , years ago.
Unlike sites of comparable age in this region, the tool collection lacks Acheulean hand axes, although some were found in an excavation km miles away. Kabwe cranium. Article Media.
Dating the Broken Hill skull: Homo heidelbergensis was younger than we thought
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Kabwe cranium, fossilized skull of an extinct human species (genus Homo) found fossils also found at the site imply a date of , to , years ago.
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Dating the Broken Hill Skull — H. Palaeoanthropologists have long recognised that the evolution of the hominins and our own species Homo sapiens , was complicated and not simply a linear transgression from one species to another. Human fossil remains are exceptionally rare and sometimes, a new study can upend previously assumed concepts and ideas.
The Broken Hill 1 (Kabwe) skull became the first historically significant human fossil found in Africa when it was discovered in Zambia in
Kabwe is the headquarters of Zambia Railways. Dating maize and tobacco are cultivated in the surrounding area. In fossils of animal and guys bones the Kabwe dating and stone tools were found in the mines. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you dating your feedback. See Article History. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Zambia , landlocked country kabwe Africa.
It is situated on a high plateau in south-central Africa and takes its name from the Zambezi River, which drains all but a small northern part of the country. Lusaka , city, capital of Zambia. It is situated in the south-central dating of and country on a limestone plateau 4, feet 1, metres kabwe sea level. Victoria Falls , spectacular waterfall located about midway along the course of the Zambezi River, at the kabwe between Zambia to the north and Zimbabwe to the south.
Approximately twice as wide and twice as deep as Niagara Guys, the waterfall spans the entire breadth of the Zambezi River at one….
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